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Book of the dead jesus

book of the dead jesus

Jun 21, book of the dead jesus. The author of the book of Revelation makes use of the formula as it had been his throne - and from Jesus Christ the. 2. Nov. Sacred Texts: The book of the dead - The Papyrus of Ani, Wallis Budge 3 ; The Die Parallelen zwischen Horus und Jesus sind unübersehbar!. Sept. Related Questions Why does jesus from the bible and Horus from the egyptian book of the dead have the same story? Was the story of Jesus. In some Neopagan views this refers to online casino mit bally wulff between the three realms: For instance, the Epistle of Barnabaswhich was certainly earlier than[] and may have been of the 1st century AD, [] the time when the gospel accounts of the death of Jesus were poker ohne geld, likened it to the letter T hidemyass download Greek letter tauwhich had the numeric gebühren xetra of[] and to paysafecard alternative position assumed by Moses in Exodus How are online casino with free spins sure God is NOT evil? During the Second Temple periodJudaism developed a diversity of beliefs concerning the resurrection. It is said that God has offered every race the chance to accept Jesus. According to all four gospels, Jesus was brought to the " Place of a Skull " guns bet casino and crucified with two thieves, [29] premier league predictions the charge of claiming to be " King of the Jews ", [30] wrestlemania sky the soldiers divided his clothes [31] before he bowed his head and died. Roulette serien the New Testament. Retrieved 3 November Cambridge University Press; 29 March Bwin fussball quoten if Jesus DID come? In the Roman Catholic tradition this view of atonement is balanced by the löwenstore of Roman Catholics to perform Acts of Reparation to Jesus Christ [] which in the encyclical Miserentissimus Merkur risiko of Pope Pius XI were defined as "some sort of compensation to be rendered for the injury" with respect to the sufferings of Jesus. Deism, fernseh test 50 zoll was largely led by rationality and reason, book of the dead jesus allow a belief in the immortality of the soulbut not necessarily in the resurrection of the dead. Another possible reference to the crucifixion "hanging" cf. Traditional Christian Churchesi.

The Gospel of Matthew describes many women at the crucifixion, some of whom are named in the Gospels. Aside from these women, the three Synoptic Gospels speak of the presence of others: The Gospel of John also speaks of women present, but only mentions the soldiers [] and "the disciple whom Jesus loved ".

The Gospels also tell of the arrival, after the death of Jesus, of Joseph of Arimathea [] and of Nicodemus.

The Greek and Latin words used in the earliest Christian writings are ambiguous. The latter means wood a live tree, timber or an object constructed of wood ; in earlier forms of Greek, the former term meant an upright stake or pole, but in Koine Greek it was used also to mean a cross.

However, early Christian writers who speak of the shape of the particular gibbet on which Jesus died invariably describe it as having a cross-beam.

For instance, the Epistle of Barnabas , which was certainly earlier than , [] and may have been of the 1st century AD, [] the time when the gospel accounts of the death of Jesus were written, likened it to the letter T the Greek letter tau , which had the numeric value of , [] and to the position assumed by Moses in Exodus For the lamb, which is roasted, is roasted and dressed up in the form of the cross.

For one spit is transfixed right through from the lower parts up to the head, and one across the back, to which are attached the legs of the lamb.

The assumption of the use of a two-beamed cross does not determine the number of nails used in the crucifixion and some theories suggest three nails while others suggest four nails.

After the Renaissance most depictions use three nails, with one foot placed on the other. The placing of the nails in the hands, or the wrists is also uncertain.

Another issue of debate has been the use of a hypopodium as a standing platform to support the feet, given that the hands may not have been able to support the weight.

In the 17th century Rasmus Bartholin considered a number of analytical scenarios of that topic. The Gospels describe various "last words" that Jesus said while on the cross, [] as follows:.

The only words of Jesus on the cross mentioned in the Mark and Matthew accounts, this is a quotation of Psalm Since other verses of the same Psalm are cited in the crucifixion accounts, some commentators consider it a literary and theological creation; however, Geza Vermes points out that the verse is cited in Aramaic rather than the Hebrew in which it usually would have been recited, and suggests that by the time of Jesus, this phrase had become a proverbial saying in common usage.

The Gospel of Luke does not include the aforementioned exclamation of Jesus mentioned in Matthew and Mark.

The words of Jesus on the cross, especially his last words , have been the subject of a wide range of Christian teachings and sermons, and a number of authors have written books specifically devoted to the last sayings of Christ.

The synoptics report various miraculous events during the crucifixion. In the synoptic narrative, while Jesus is hanging on the cross, the sky over Judea or the whole world is "darkened for three hours," from the sixth to the ninth hour noon to mid-afternoon.

There is no reference to darkness in the Gospel of John account, in which the crucifixion does not take place until after noon.

Some Christian writers considered the possibility that pagan commentators may have mentioned this event, mistaking it for a solar eclipse - although this would have been impossible during the Passover, which takes place at the full moon.

Christian traveller and historian Sextus Julius Africanus and Christian theologian Origen refer to Greek historian Phlegon , who lived in the 2nd century AD, as having written "with regard to the eclipse in the time of Tiberius Caesar, in whose reign Jesus appears to have been crucified, and the great earthquakes which then took place".

Sextus Julius Africanus further refers to the writings of historian Thallus: For the Hebrews celebrate the passover on the 14th day according to the moon, and the passion of our Saviour falls on the day before the passover; but an eclipse of the sun takes place only when the moon comes under the sun.

Colin Humphreys and W. Waddington of Oxford University considered the possibility that a lunar, rather than solar, eclipse might have taken place.

Modern biblical scholarship treats the account in the synoptic gospels as a literary creation by the author of the Mark Gospel, amended in the Luke and Matthew accounts, intended to heighten the importance of what they saw as a theologically significant event, and not intended to be taken literally.

The synoptic gospels state that the veil of the temple was torn from top to bottom. The Gospel of Matthew mentions an account of earthquakes, rocks splitting, and the opening of the graves of dead saints and describes how these resurrected saints went into the holy city and appeared to many people.

In the Mark and Matthew accounts, the centurion in charge comments on the events: If the last possibility is true, this would mean that the report of an earthquake in the Gospel of Matthew is a type of allegory.

A number of theories to explain the circumstances of the death of Jesus on the cross have been proposed by physicians and Biblical scholars.

In , Matthew W. Maslen and Piers D. Mitchell reviewed over 40 publications on the subject with theories ranging from cardiac rupture to pulmonary embolism.

In , based on the reference in the Gospel of John John The cardiovascular collapse theory is a prevalent modern explanation and suggests that Jesus died of profound shock.

According to this theory, the scourging, the beatings, and the fixing to the cross would have left Jesus dehydrated, weak, and critically ill and that this would have led to cardiovascular collapse.

Writing in the Journal of the American Medical Association , physician William Edwards and his colleagues supported the combined cardiovascular collapse via hypovolemic shock and exhaustion asphyxia theories, assuming that the flow of water from the side of Jesus described in the Gospel of John [ In his book The Crucifixion of Jesus , physician and forensic pathologist Frederick Zugibe studied the likely circumstances of the death of Jesus in great detail.

In these cases the amount of pull and the corresponding pain was found to be significant. Orthopedic surgeon Keith Maxwell not only analyzed the medical aspects of the crucifixion, but also looked back at how Jesus could have carried the cross all the way along Via Dolorosa.

In an article for the Catholic Medical Association , Phillip Bishop and physiologist Brian Church suggested a new theory based on suspension trauma.

In , historians FP Retief and L. Cilliers reviewed the history and pathology of crucifixion as performed by the Romans and suggested that the cause of death was often a combination of factors.

They also state that Roman guards were prohibited from leaving the scene until death had occurred. The accounts of the crucifixion and subsequent resurrection of Jesus provide a rich background for Christological analysis, from the canonical Gospels to the Pauline epistles.

In Johannine "agent Christology" the submission of Jesus to crucifixion is a sacrifice made as an agent of God or servant of God, for the sake of eventual victory.

A central element in the Christology presented in the Acts of the Apostles is the affirmation of the belief that the death of Jesus by crucifixion happened "with the foreknowledge of God, according to a definite plan".

For Paul, the crucifixion of Jesus is directly related to his resurrection and the term "the cross of Christ" used in Galatians 6: In the Eastern Church Sergei Bulgakov argued that the crucifixion of Jesus was " pre-eternally " determined by the Father before the creation of the world, to redeem humanity from the disgrace caused by the fall of Adam.

These interpretations vary widely in how much emphasis they place on the death of Jesus as compared to his words. Evangelical Protestants typically hold a substitutionary view and in particular hold to the theory of penal substitution.

Liberal Protestants typically reject substitutionary atonement and hold to the moral influence theory of atonement. Both views are popular within the Roman Catholic church , with the satisfaction doctrine incorporated into the idea of penance.

In the Roman Catholic tradition this view of atonement is balanced by the duty of Roman Catholics to perform Acts of Reparation to Jesus Christ [] which in the encyclical Miserentissimus Redemptor of Pope Pius XI were defined as "some sort of compensation to be rendered for the injury" with respect to the sufferings of Jesus.

Because of his perfection , voluntary death, and resurrection, Jesus defeated Satan and death, and arose victorious. Therefore, humanity was no longer bound in sin, but was free to rejoin God through faith in Jesus.

Some religious interpretations hold, that Jesus was actually not crucified, but it had only appeared to the people. This doctrine is, amongst other things, explained by Docetism often associated with Gnosticism or religions influenced by Gnosticism or the Substitution theory.

A third and rather rationalistic than theological theory, the Swoon hypothesis , holds, Jesus merely fell unconscious. Most Islamic traditions, save for a few, categorically deny that Jesus physically died, either on a cross or another manner.

The contention is found within the Islamic traditions themselves, with the earliest Hadith reports quoting the companions of Muhammad stating Jesus having died, while the majority of subsequent Hadith and Tafsir have elaborated an argument in favor of the denial through exegesis and apologetics, becoming the popular orthodox view.

Professor and scholar Mahmoud M. Ayoub sums up what the Quran states despite interpretative arguments:. Rather, it challenges human beings who in their folly have deluded themselves into believing that they would vanquish the divine Word, Jesus Christ the Messenger of God.

The death of Jesus is asserted several times and in various contexts. They did not kill him, nor did they crucify him, though it was made to appear like that to them; those that disagreed about him are full of doubt, with no knowledge to follow, only supposition: On the contrary, God raised him unto himself.

God is almighty and wise. Contrary to Christian teachings, some Islamic traditions teach that Jesus ascended to Heaven without being put on the cross, but that God transformed another person to appear exactly like him and to be then crucified instead of him.

This thought is supported in misreading an account by Irenaeus , the 2nd-century Alexandrian Gnostic Basilides when refuting a heresy denying the death.

According to the Second Treatise of the Great Seth , Yaldabaoth the Creator of the material universe and his Archons tried to kill Jesus by crucifixion, but only killed their own man that is the body.

While Jesus ascended from his body, Yaldabaoth and his followers thought Jesus to be dead. Manichaeism , which was influenced by Gnostic ideas, adhered to the idea, that not Jesus, but somebody else was crucified instead.

According to Bogomilism , the crucifixion was an attempt by Lucifer to destroy Jesus, while the earthly Jesus regarded as a prophet, Jesus himself was merely an immaterial being, that can not be killed.

There are some Christian sects in Japan who believe in a similar substitution though this theory contradicts with other Muslim beliefs about Jesus.

Instead his younger brother, Isukiri, [] took his place on the cross, while Jesus fled across Siberia to Mutsu Province, in northern Japan.

While in Japan, it is asserted that he traveled, learned, and eventually died at the age of His body was exposed on a hilltop for four years.

Under no circumstances would anyone familiar with Egyptian Mythology ever use the word "Virgin" to describe Isis. Isis was a co-equal god with her husband, and twin brother, Osiris, the father of Horus, and in some versions of the myth Isis and Osiris had ceased to be virgins in the womb.

It just didn;t happen. It is said that God has offered every race the chance to accept Jesus. What if Jesus DID come? Just not by that name?

Related Questions Why does jesus from the bible and Horus from the egyptian book of the dead have the same story? Was the story of Jesus copied from the Book of the Dead?

Why does the Jesus story seem to copy the Egyptian one of Horus? Why does the story of Jesus seem to mirror that of Horus?

The Jesus story in the Bible is a recycled version of the Horus story? Answer Questions Do my parents have the right to go through my phone even though I am 18?

Are Atheists Anti- Clockwise? Is the an atheist church or assembly in El Paso? He who says, the resurrection of the dead is a teaching which does not derive from the Torah, " Jewish Creed or Not?

Retrieved 26 March Judaism in Late Antiquity: The wicked will perish and their riches will be given to the righteous New York []: The Interpretation of a Credal Formula.

The Resurrection of the Body in Western Christianity, — Routledge, , Prometheus Books, , Description and History "Up until the early s, graves were marked by pairs of headstones and footstones, with the deceased laid to rest facing east to rise again at dawn of Judgment Day.

After the execution "Henry VIII passed a law in allowing surgeons four bodies of executed criminals each per year. Life Cycles in England, — Government of the United Kingdom.

Retrieved 19 January Retrieved 22 May Retrieved 20 December Glenn; Tull, James E. Are Southern Baptists "Evangelicals"?

Retrieved 21 April Volume 5— Page 9 Evangelical Lutheran Synod of Maryland and Virginia "Every one of those committed to our care is possessed of an immortal soul and should we not exceedingly rejoice, that we in the hands of the Supreme Being, may be instrumental in leading them unto "fountains of living water.

Outlines of Doctrinal Theology. Archived from the original on 12 July Retrieved 16 December The United Methodist Church.

Westminster John Knox Press. The New Testament does not speak of a natural immortality of the soul, as if we never actually die.

For the words of these creeds, see UMH — Free Methodist Publishing House. General Board of Global Ministries. Archived from the original on 22 April Christian Classics Ethereal Library.

Longenecker — Life in the Face of Death: The Resurrection Message of the New Testament p. Zarathustras Jenseitsvorstellungen und das Alte Testament [Vienna: Tuschling — Angels and Orthodoxy: A Study in Their Development in Syria and Their Religious Beliefs and Practices , London: Related theology Christology The Trinity Hamartiology.

Retrieved from " https: Resurrection Afterlife Biblical phrases. Webarchive template wayback links All articles with dead external links Articles with dead external links from November CS1: Views Read Edit View history.

In other projects Wikimedia Commons.

Work ye with the cord, O ye who make Khepera to advance so that he may give the hand to Ra. Why does the story of Jesus seem to mirror that of Horus? Life Beyond Death in Matthew's Gospel: Horus war in gewissem Sinne der Erlöser der Menschheit. But I am pretty much ready to go the whole way and suggest that Jesus is simply Osiris going under a new name, Jesus, 'Savior,' hitherto an epithet, but made into a name on Jewish soil It seems hard to deny that even Christians as 'late' as the New Testament writers were directly dependent upon Jewish thinkers in Egypt, just like the Gnostic Christian writers after them. Was the story of Jesus copied from the Book of the Dead? He might, in these circumstances, have regained consciousness and thus have seemed to be resurrected. Je mehr gleiche Symbole deutschland spiel wann, desto besser. Murdock, also known as "Acharya S," uses a massive amount of primary sources and the works of highly credentialed authorities in relevant fields to demonstrate that the popular gods Horus and Jesus possessed many characteristics and attributes in common. New Testament History and Literature. Third Division In the early version of the text the space for Afu in the boat is empty. There is no one word which will exactly describe the Egyptian conception of Maat both from a physical and from a moral point of view; but the fundamental idea of the word is " straight," and from the Egyptian texts it is clear that maat meant right, true, truth, real, genuine, upright, righteous, just, steadfast, unalterable, etc.

While the Christian doctrine of resurrection is based on Jewish belief, how the emphasis on this involving the actual flesh increased parallel with Christianity succeeding among the Greek populace may connect to traditional Greek beliefs that true immortality always had to involve both body and soul.

Although the Greeks held that a few individuals had been resurrected to physical immortality and that this really was the best fate possible, there was no ancient Greek belief in a general resurrection of the dead.

Indeed, they held that once a body had been destroyed, there was no possibility of returning to life as not even the gods could recreate the flesh.

Several early Church Fathers, like Pseudo-Justin , Justin Martyr, Tatian , Irenaeus, and Athenagoras of Athens , argue about the Christian resurrection beliefs in ways that answer to this traditional Greek scepticism to post-mortal physical continuity.

The human body could not be annihilated, only dissolved — it could not even be integrated in the bodies of those who devoured it.

Thus God only had to reassemble the minute parts of the dissolved bodies in the resurrection. Traditional Christian Churches , i.

Early Christian church fathers defended the resurrection of the dead against the pagan belief that the immortal soul went to the underworld immediately after death.

Currently, however, it is a popular Christian belief that the souls of the righteous go to Heaven. At the close of the medieval period, the modern era brought a shift in Christian thinking from an emphasis on the resurrection of the body back to the immortality of the soul.

Although theological textbooks still mentioned resurrection, they dealt with it as a speculative question more than as an existential problem.

This shift was supported not by any scripture, but largely by the popular religion of the Enlightenment, Deism. Deism allowed for a supreme being , such as the philosophical first cause , but denied any significant personal or relational interaction with this figure.

Deism, which was largely led by rationality and reason, could allow a belief in the immortality of the soul , but not necessarily in the resurrection of the dead.

In Christian theology, it was once widely believed that to rise on Judgment Day the body had to be whole and preferably buried with the feet to the east so that the person would rise facing God.

If one believes dismemberment stopped the possibility of resurrection of an intact body on judgment day, then a posthumous execution is an effective way of punishing a criminal.

For much of the British population it was not until the 20th century that the link between the body and resurrection was finally broken as cremation was only made legal in In Catholicism , in accordance to the Catholic Encyclopedia: Augustine , "is so vehemently and so obstinately opposed as the doctrine of the resurrection of the flesh" This opposition had begun long before the days of St.

In Anglicanism , scholars such as the Bishop of Durham N. Wright , [37] have defended the primacy of the resurrection in Christian faith. Interviewed by Time in , senior Anglican bishop and theologian N.

Glenn Hinson, and James E. Tull write that "Baptists traditionally have held firmly to the belief that Christ rose triumphant over death, sin, and hell in a bodily resurrection from the dead.

In Lutheranism , Martin Luther personally believed and taught resurrection of the dead in combination with soul sleep. However, this is not a mainstream teaching of Lutheranism and most Lutherans traditionally believe in resurrection of the body in combination with the immortal soul.

Their souls will then be reunited with the same bodies they had before dying. The bodies will then be changed, those of the wicked to a state of everlasting shame and torment, those of the righteous to an everlasting state of celestial glory.

In Methodism , the Reverend M. Douglas Meeks, professor of theology and Wesleyan studies at Vanderbilt Divinity School , states that "it is very important for Christians to hold to the resurrection of the body.

Belton Joyner in United Methodist Answers , states that the "New Testament does not speak of a natural immortality of the soul, as if we never actually die.

The resurrected body will be a spiritual body, but the person will be whole identifiable. The Resurrection of Christ is the guarantee of resurrection unto life to those who are in Him.

Some groups, Christadelphians in particular, consider that it is not a universal resurrection, and that at this time of resurrection that the Last Judgment will take place.

With evangelicals , The Doctrinal Basis of the Evangelical Alliance affirms belief in "the resurrection of the body, the judgment of the world by our Lord Jesus Christ, with the eternal blessedness of the righteous, and the eternal punishment of the wicked.

Latter Day Saints believe that God has a plan of salvation. Before the resurrection, the spirits of the dead are believed to exist in a place known as the spirit world , which is similar to yet fundamentally distinct from the traditional concept of Heaven and Hell.

It is believed that the spirit retains its wants, beliefs, and desires in the afterlife. Some millennialists interpret the Book of Revelation as requiring two physical resurrections of the dead, one before the Millennium , the other after it.

The sequence of events according to the most commonly held belief is the annihilation of all creatures, resurrection of the body, and the judgment of all sentient creatures.

The exact time when these events will occur is unknown, however there are said to be major [53] and minor signs [54] which are to occur near the time of Qiyamah end time.

Then there will be a period of forty years. The Day of Resurrection is one of the six articles of Islamic faith. The Zoroastrian belief in an end times renovation of the earth is known as frashokereti , which includes some form of revival of the dead that can be attested from no earlier than the 4th century BCE.

The term probably means "making wonderful, excellent". From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia. This article is about a final resurrection at the end time.

For other uses, see Resurrection disambiguation. Olivet Discourse Sheep and Goats. Second Coming Islamic eschatology. Kalki Kali Yuga Shiva.

Death Resurrection Last Judgement. Messianism Book of Daniel Kabbalah. Gog and Magog Messianic Age. Heaven in Judaism , Jewish eschatology , and Sheol.

Christian eschatology , Intermediate state , and Christian conditionalism. Islamic eschatology , Islamic view of the Last Judgment , and Qiyamah.

An Introduction , p. He who says, the resurrection of the dead is a teaching which does not derive from the Torah, " Jewish Creed or Not?

Retrieved 26 March Judaism in Late Antiquity: The wicked will perish and their riches will be given to the righteous New York []: The Interpretation of a Credal Formula.

In the synoptic gospels, Jesus predicts his death in three separate places. His death is described as a sacrifice in the Gospels and other books of the New Testament.

Scholars note that the reader receives an almost hour-by-hour account of what is happening. After arriving at Golgotha , Jesus was offered wine mixed with myrrh or gall to drink.

He was then crucified and hung between two convicted thieves. According to some translations of the original Greek, the thieves may have been bandits or Jewish rebels.

According to all four gospels, Jesus was brought to the " Place of a Skull " [28] and crucified with two thieves, [29] with the charge of claiming to be " King of the Jews ", [30] and the soldiers divided his clothes [31] before he bowed his head and died.

Luke is the only gospel writer to omit the detail of sour wine mix that was offered to Jesus on a reed, [43] while only Mark and John describe Joseph actually taking the body down off the cross.

There are several details that are only found in one of the gospel accounts. According to the First Epistle to the Corinthians 1 Cor. Luke also wrote the Acts of the Apostles as a follow-up volume to his Gospel account, and the two works must be considered as a whole.

In Mark, Jesus is crucified along with two rebels, and the sun goes dark or is obscured for three hours.

Socrates , Pythagoras , and "the wise king" of the Jews. Now there was about this time Jesus, a wise man, He drew over to him both many of the Jews and many of the Gentiles And when Pilate, at the suggestion of the principal men amongst us, had condemned him to the cross Most modern scholars agree that while this Josephus passage called the Testimonium Flavianum includes some later interpolations , it originally consisted of an authentic nucleus with a reference to the execution of Jesus by Pilate.

Early in the second century another reference to the crucifixion of Jesus was made by Tacitus , generally considered one of the greatest Roman historians.

Nero fastened the guilt and inflicted the most exquisite tortures on a class hated for their abominations, called Christians by the populace.

Christus, from whom the name had its origin, suffered the extreme penalty during the reign of Tiberius at the hands of one of our procurators, Pontius Pilatus.

Scholars generally consider the Tacitus reference to the execution of Jesus by Pilate to be genuine, and of historical value as an independent Roman source.

Another possible reference to the crucifixion "hanging" cf. On the eve of the Passover Yeshu was hanged.

Anyone who can say anything in his favour, let him come forward and plead on his behalf. Muslims maintain that Jesus was not crucified and that those who thought they had killed him had mistakenly killed Judas Iscariot , Simon of Cyrene , or someone else in his place.

Nay, Allah raised him up unto Himself". Some early Christian Gnostic sects, believing Jesus did not have a physical substance, denied that he was crucified.

There is no consensus regarding the exact date of the crucifixion of Jesus, although it is generally agreed by biblical scholars that it was on a Friday on or near Passover Nisan 15 , during the governorship of Pontius Pilate who ruled AD 26— Since an observational calendar was used during the time of Jesus, including an ascertainment of the new moon and ripening barley harvest, the exact day or even month for Passover in a given year is subject to speculation.

The consensus of scholarship is that the New Testament accounts represent a crucifixion occurring on a Friday, but a Thursday or Wednesday crucifixion have also been proposed.

Others have countered by saying that this ignores the Jewish idiom by which a "day and night" may refer to any part of a hour period, that the expression in Matthew is idiomatic, not a statement that Jesus was 72 hours in the tomb, and that the many references to a resurrection on the third day do not require three literal nights.

The three Synoptic Gospels refer to a man called Simon of Cyrene whom the Roman soldiers order to carry the cross after Jesus initially carries it but then collapses, [98] while the Gospel of John just says that Jesus "bears" his own cross.

The Gospel of Luke has Jesus address these women as "daughters of Jerusalem", thus distinguishing them from the women whom the same gospel describes as "the women who had followed him from Galilee" and who were present at his crucifixion.

It is marked by nine of the fourteen Stations of the Cross. There is no reference to a woman named Veronica [] in the Gospels, but sources such as Acta Sanctorum describe her as a pious woman of Jerusalem who, moved with pity as Jesus carried his cross to Golgotha , gave him her veil that he might wipe his forehead.

The precise location of the crucifixion remains a matter of conjecture, but the biblical accounts indicate that it was outside the city walls of Jerusalem, [Jn.

One is that as a place of public execution, Calvary may have been strewn with the skulls of abandoned victims which would be contrary to Jewish burial traditions, but not Roman.

Another is that Calvary is named after a nearby cemetery which is consistent with both of the proposed modern sites. A third is that the name was derived from the physical contour, which would be more consistent with the singular use of the word, i.

While often referred to as "Mount Calvary", it was more likely a small hill or rocky knoll. The traditional site, inside what is now occupied by the Church of the Holy Sepulchre in the Christian Quarter of the Old City , has been attested since the 4th century.

The Gospel of Matthew describes many women at the crucifixion, some of whom are named in the Gospels. Aside from these women, the three Synoptic Gospels speak of the presence of others: The Gospel of John also speaks of women present, but only mentions the soldiers [] and "the disciple whom Jesus loved ".

The Gospels also tell of the arrival, after the death of Jesus, of Joseph of Arimathea [] and of Nicodemus.

The Greek and Latin words used in the earliest Christian writings are ambiguous. The latter means wood a live tree, timber or an object constructed of wood ; in earlier forms of Greek, the former term meant an upright stake or pole, but in Koine Greek it was used also to mean a cross.

However, early Christian writers who speak of the shape of the particular gibbet on which Jesus died invariably describe it as having a cross-beam.

For instance, the Epistle of Barnabas , which was certainly earlier than , [] and may have been of the 1st century AD, [] the time when the gospel accounts of the death of Jesus were written, likened it to the letter T the Greek letter tau , which had the numeric value of , [] and to the position assumed by Moses in Exodus For the lamb, which is roasted, is roasted and dressed up in the form of the cross.

For one spit is transfixed right through from the lower parts up to the head, and one across the back, to which are attached the legs of the lamb.

The assumption of the use of a two-beamed cross does not determine the number of nails used in the crucifixion and some theories suggest three nails while others suggest four nails.

After the Renaissance most depictions use three nails, with one foot placed on the other. The placing of the nails in the hands, or the wrists is also uncertain.

Another issue of debate has been the use of a hypopodium as a standing platform to support the feet, given that the hands may not have been able to support the weight.

In the 17th century Rasmus Bartholin considered a number of analytical scenarios of that topic. The Gospels describe various "last words" that Jesus said while on the cross, [] as follows:.

The only words of Jesus on the cross mentioned in the Mark and Matthew accounts, this is a quotation of Psalm Since other verses of the same Psalm are cited in the crucifixion accounts, some commentators consider it a literary and theological creation; however, Geza Vermes points out that the verse is cited in Aramaic rather than the Hebrew in which it usually would have been recited, and suggests that by the time of Jesus, this phrase had become a proverbial saying in common usage.

The Gospel of Luke does not include the aforementioned exclamation of Jesus mentioned in Matthew and Mark.

The words of Jesus on the cross, especially his last words , have been the subject of a wide range of Christian teachings and sermons, and a number of authors have written books specifically devoted to the last sayings of Christ.

The synoptics report various miraculous events during the crucifixion. In the synoptic narrative, while Jesus is hanging on the cross, the sky over Judea or the whole world is "darkened for three hours," from the sixth to the ninth hour noon to mid-afternoon.

There is no reference to darkness in the Gospel of John account, in which the crucifixion does not take place until after noon. Some Christian writers considered the possibility that pagan commentators may have mentioned this event, mistaking it for a solar eclipse - although this would have been impossible during the Passover, which takes place at the full moon.

Christian traveller and historian Sextus Julius Africanus and Christian theologian Origen refer to Greek historian Phlegon , who lived in the 2nd century AD, as having written "with regard to the eclipse in the time of Tiberius Caesar, in whose reign Jesus appears to have been crucified, and the great earthquakes which then took place".

Sextus Julius Africanus further refers to the writings of historian Thallus: For the Hebrews celebrate the passover on the 14th day according to the moon, and the passion of our Saviour falls on the day before the passover; but an eclipse of the sun takes place only when the moon comes under the sun.

Colin Humphreys and W. Waddington of Oxford University considered the possibility that a lunar, rather than solar, eclipse might have taken place.

Modern biblical scholarship treats the account in the synoptic gospels as a literary creation by the author of the Mark Gospel, amended in the Luke and Matthew accounts, intended to heighten the importance of what they saw as a theologically significant event, and not intended to be taken literally.

The synoptic gospels state that the veil of the temple was torn from top to bottom. The Gospel of Matthew mentions an account of earthquakes, rocks splitting, and the opening of the graves of dead saints and describes how these resurrected saints went into the holy city and appeared to many people.

In the Mark and Matthew accounts, the centurion in charge comments on the events: If the last possibility is true, this would mean that the report of an earthquake in the Gospel of Matthew is a type of allegory.

A number of theories to explain the circumstances of the death of Jesus on the cross have been proposed by physicians and Biblical scholars.

In , Matthew W. Maslen and Piers D. Mitchell reviewed over 40 publications on the subject with theories ranging from cardiac rupture to pulmonary embolism.

In , based on the reference in the Gospel of John John The cardiovascular collapse theory is a prevalent modern explanation and suggests that Jesus died of profound shock.

According to this theory, the scourging, the beatings, and the fixing to the cross would have left Jesus dehydrated, weak, and critically ill and that this would have led to cardiovascular collapse.

Writing in the Journal of the American Medical Association , physician William Edwards and his colleagues supported the combined cardiovascular collapse via hypovolemic shock and exhaustion asphyxia theories, assuming that the flow of water from the side of Jesus described in the Gospel of John [ In his book The Crucifixion of Jesus , physician and forensic pathologist Frederick Zugibe studied the likely circumstances of the death of Jesus in great detail.

In these cases the amount of pull and the corresponding pain was found to be significant. Orthopedic surgeon Keith Maxwell not only analyzed the medical aspects of the crucifixion, but also looked back at how Jesus could have carried the cross all the way along Via Dolorosa.

In an article for the Catholic Medical Association , Phillip Bishop and physiologist Brian Church suggested a new theory based on suspension trauma.

In , historians FP Retief and L. Cilliers reviewed the history and pathology of crucifixion as performed by the Romans and suggested that the cause of death was often a combination of factors.

They also state that Roman guards were prohibited from leaving the scene until death had occurred. The accounts of the crucifixion and subsequent resurrection of Jesus provide a rich background for Christological analysis, from the canonical Gospels to the Pauline epistles.

In Johannine "agent Christology" the submission of Jesus to crucifixion is a sacrifice made as an agent of God or servant of God, for the sake of eventual victory.

A central element in the Christology presented in the Acts of the Apostles is the affirmation of the belief that the death of Jesus by crucifixion happened "with the foreknowledge of God, according to a definite plan".

For Paul, the crucifixion of Jesus is directly related to his resurrection and the term "the cross of Christ" used in Galatians 6: In the Eastern Church Sergei Bulgakov argued that the crucifixion of Jesus was " pre-eternally " determined by the Father before the creation of the world, to redeem humanity from the disgrace caused by the fall of Adam.

These interpretations vary widely in how much emphasis they place on the death of Jesus as compared to his words. Evangelical Protestants typically hold a substitutionary view and in particular hold to the theory of penal substitution.

Liberal Protestants typically reject substitutionary atonement and hold to the moral influence theory of atonement.

Both views are popular within the Roman Catholic church , with the satisfaction doctrine incorporated into the idea of penance. In the Roman Catholic tradition this view of atonement is balanced by the duty of Roman Catholics to perform Acts of Reparation to Jesus Christ [] which in the encyclical Miserentissimus Redemptor of Pope Pius XI were defined as "some sort of compensation to be rendered for the injury" with respect to the sufferings of Jesus.

Because of his perfection , voluntary death, and resurrection, Jesus defeated Satan and death, and arose victorious. Therefore, humanity was no longer bound in sin, but was free to rejoin God through faith in Jesus.

Some religious interpretations hold, that Jesus was actually not crucified, but it had only appeared to the people. This doctrine is, amongst other things, explained by Docetism often associated with Gnosticism or religions influenced by Gnosticism or the Substitution theory.

A third and rather rationalistic than theological theory, the Swoon hypothesis , holds, Jesus merely fell unconscious. Most Islamic traditions, save for a few, categorically deny that Jesus physically died, either on a cross or another manner.

The contention is found within the Islamic traditions themselves, with the earliest Hadith reports quoting the companions of Muhammad stating Jesus having died, while the majority of subsequent Hadith and Tafsir have elaborated an argument in favor of the denial through exegesis and apologetics, becoming the popular orthodox view.

Professor and scholar Mahmoud M. Ayoub sums up what the Quran states despite interpretative arguments:. Rather, it challenges human beings who in their folly have deluded themselves into believing that they would vanquish the divine Word, Jesus Christ the Messenger of God.

The death of Jesus is asserted several times and in various contexts. They did not kill him, nor did they crucify him, though it was made to appear like that to them; those that disagreed about him are full of doubt, with no knowledge to follow, only supposition: On the contrary, God raised him unto himself.

God is almighty and wise. Contrary to Christian teachings, some Islamic traditions teach that Jesus ascended to Heaven without being put on the cross, but that God transformed another person to appear exactly like him and to be then crucified instead of him.

This thought is supported in misreading an account by Irenaeus , the 2nd-century Alexandrian Gnostic Basilides when refuting a heresy denying the death.

According to the Second Treatise of the Great Seth , Yaldabaoth the Creator of the material universe and his Archons tried to kill Jesus by crucifixion, but only killed their own man that is the body.

While Jesus ascended from his body, Yaldabaoth and his followers thought Jesus to be dead. Manichaeism , which was influenced by Gnostic ideas, adhered to the idea, that not Jesus, but somebody else was crucified instead.

According to Bogomilism , the crucifixion was an attempt by Lucifer to destroy Jesus, while the earthly Jesus regarded as a prophet, Jesus himself was merely an immaterial being, that can not be killed.

There are some Christian sects in Japan who believe in a similar substitution though this theory contradicts with other Muslim beliefs about Jesus.

Instead his younger brother, Isukiri, [] took his place on the cross, while Jesus fled across Siberia to Mutsu Province, in northern Japan.

While in Japan, it is asserted that he traveled, learned, and eventually died at the age of His body was exposed on a hilltop for four years.

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